Of all the topics I want to cover on this blog, allergies have been at the top of my list for a long time.
If you have ever been around the poor dogs suffering from these problems, you have certainly been forced to see how difficult the symptoms are to live with, both for the dog and for the humans around him. Seeing your dog continuously licking, biting and scratching can drive a human crazy, not to mention how heartbreaking it is to see your pet suffer and inflict so much physical damage on himself in an effort to appease himself.
On the other hand, you will be surprised that I tell you that allergies are much less frequent than we think and that several other diseases or imbalances frequently pass on their backs. So we often find ourselves dealing with the wrong problem in the wrong way… which leads to very few results and even more discouragement.
In addition, many options exist but are not well known, such as allergy testing and the use of extremely effective natural products. Even more important: I will give you options to fix the problem at the source instead of just focusing on reducing the symptoms, which is what I criticize traditional veterinary medicine the most in the treatment of allergies.
During this article you will learn:
- How do allergies occur in the body
- The Role of Digestive Health in Allergy Prevention
- Triggers and Symptoms
- The different types of allergies
- The difference between an intolerance and an allergy
- What Illnesses Make You Falsely Think Your Dog Has Allergies
- Why Vets’ Treatment Method Is Basically Lacking
- What are the dangers of the medication used in the treatment of allergies
- Hypoallergenic foods: what they actually contain and alternatives
- Natural methods that actually work to treat allergies
- Allergy tests: why are they so little known?
What are the reasons for consulting a veterinarian?
Here are the top reasons customers visited a veterinarian in 2019, according to US pet insurer Healthy Paws:
- Digestive disorders (26%)
- Skin issues (17%)
- Pain (14%)
- Ear infections (10%)
Let’s say we remove the 3rd element (pain) from the equation, we could then conclude that the three remaining reasons are directly related to allergies and alone account for 53% of veterinary consultations . So I don’t think I’m wrong in saying that allergies are a major problem that we must focus on as canine parents, because no one is immune to it.
Where do these allergies come from?
I won’t surprise anyone if I say that I believe allergies are directly related to the food our dogs eat.
Allergies occur due to an overreaction of the immune system triggered by the repeated ingestion of foods and additives that are potentially or recognized as allergens. Additionally, once the immune system is reactive, then it will also start reacting hyper-vigilantly towards foods that would normally not cause a problem, such as proteins such as chicken and beef. Regarding these two proteins, there are also other factors to consider:
We must consider what this chicken and beef will have eaten during their life and also what they will have been exposed to:
- Growth hormones
- Grains; sources of aflatoxins (micro fungi)
- Genetically modified (GMO) or mycotoxin contaminated corn; typically used to feed farm animals (or make kibble)
All of these substances are immune system suppressants and enter your dog’s body when he consumes a product made with these meats. If in addition the kibble he eats also contains corn and other bad grains (which contain the same GMOs, mycotoxins or aflatoxins) among the ingredients, then you have just unknowingly doubled this toxic allergen in the body of your dog!
Now imagine that your dog eats this food every day of his life…so it’s not surprising that over time the problems (reactions) set in.
The most common allergens
Quite honestly, I don’t want to give you a list of the most common allergens. The reality is that every dog is different and almost any ingredient in their kibble can be an allergen , although in most cases it will be either the protein or a starch (grain, potato) that is the culprit.
What do I hear most often when people talk to me about allergies?
“I THINK my dog is allergic/intolerant to chicken”.
But why would we have all these chicken allergic dogs? This is not very surprising…because almost all food is made from chicken meat (or waste). It is therefore often the first culprit that is accused, although I find that it is done much too easily.
The most common allergens we see are:
In short, the ingredients that cause the most reaction…are the ones that are used the most in the production of kibble . If 80% of the dogs in the world ate kibbles made from alligator, we would have tons of alligator allergies!
A short course in digestive health
The dog’s (or human’s) digestive system has three main functions:
- digest food
- Allow the absorption of nutrients by the blood
- Prevent toxins from entering the blood by passing them through the digestive system until they are expelled (stools)
The digestive system is therefore the first filter of the immune system. This key role is possible thanks to a colony of good bacteria called probiotics. Probiotics help digest food, produce vitamins, destroy toxins, and serve as customs to judge what should and shouldn’t get into the bloodstream and then nourish the organs. In a healthy digestive system, there is a balance of good and bad bacteria that take care of these vital functions. This environment is called the microbiome . An imbalance between these good and bad bacteria can seriously compromise your dog’s health and lead to symptoms that resemble allergies and intolerances .
You should know that 70% of your dog’s immune system resides in his gut . It is therefore essential to see his digestive system as an organ that has a major role in the health and immunity (protection against disease) of your dog.
The main causes of imbalance of the intestinal flora (microbiome):
- Antibiotics: The very role of antibiotics is to destroy bacteria. The downside is that they destroy ALL bacteria: good and bad! This means that if good bacteria are not added after a treatment with antibiotics (by a good probiotic supplement), the animal will see its digestive system at risk of being invaded by bad bacteria which multiply more easily than the good ones. bacteria.
- Diet: What the animal eats will have a huge influence on the microbiome. High quality fresh food will feed the good bacteria to allow them to rule and keep the immune system healthy. On the other hand, a food high in carbohydrates and sugars (kibbles) will feed the bad bacteria which can then multiply better and create an imbalance in the body. Ever heard the phrase “ sugar feeds cancer ”? This is why a fresh (raw) diet is the best possible thing to offer a dog showing allergy symptoms and why in the majority of cases, switching to this type of diet solves these problems quickly. In fact, a 2017 study showed thatdogs eating a fresh diet had a much healthier microbiome (diversity of good bacteria) than those eating kibble. Another study in 2020 proved that breeding females eating a raw diet produced puppies with less risk of allergies than those eating kibble. That said, if you ever don’t want to feed a raw diet, a homemade or commercial cooked diet would be the next best option.
- Deworming, antiparasitic and steroid medication: The use of chemical medication destroys the intestinal flora. Be sure to use these products minimally as per your lifestyle and always give good quality probiotics soon after use.
Comme vous voyez, la santé intestinale joue un rôle majeur dans le contrôle des symptômes d’allergies. Manger frais et non transformé en plus de réduire au maximum l’utilisation de produits chimiques offrira une meilleure protection à votre chien en évitant de détruire sa flore intestinale. Je vous donnerai de nombreuses autres solutions naturelles et concrètes plus loin dans l’article.
Qu’est-ce qui déclenche une réaction allergique chez nos chiens?
Lorsque le chien mange, les protéines sont en premier digérées dans l’estomac où l’acidité et les enzymes digestifs défont les protéines en de plus petits morceaux. Cette nourriture partiellement digérée se déplace ensuite dans l’intestin où les protéines sont décomposées en leurs plus petites parties possibles: les acides aminés. Ces acides aminés sont ensuite absorbés par le corps, où ils traversent des cellules appelées entérocytes. Ces cellules peuvent rejeter tout acide aminé qu’elles considèrent comme une menace ou un envahisseur étranger.
Aussitôt que de la matière partiellement digérée réussit à traverser la membrane semi-perméable de l’intestin pour se rendre dans le sang alors qu’elle ne devrait pas, le système immunitaire réagit (réaction allergique).
This immune system response occurs each time the animal consumes the ingredient that caused the reaction. When the ingredient is consumed on a regular basis, then the allergic reaction will become a chronic problem.
Symptoms of an allergy
- “Hot spots” (hairless patches)
- Diarrhea, loose stools
- Recurrent ear infections
- Fungal infections
- Skin rashes (redness)
- itchy skin
- Excessive licking
The different types of allergies
- Fungal (mushrooms)
As a general rule, if your dog is allergic to something inside your home (dust, dust mites, cleaning products, etc.), he will have symptoms all year round. If, on the contrary, your dog has symptoms only a few months a year, you should mainly look for external allergens (eg pollen, ragweed, grass, etc.).
Additionally, the dog’s immune system is partly genetic, so environmental allergies can be partly hereditary.
Finally, it is very important to find the cause of environmental allergies since the reactions will continually increase in severity over time.
Some suggestions for resolving environmental irritants:
- Pay attention to the air quality inside your home. Do not allow smoke (cigarette or other) inside, use natural cleaning products and consider investing in an air purifier to reduce the presence of dust mites.
- Make sure your dog drinks fresh , quality water: free of fluoride, heavy metals, or other contaminants.
- Vaccinate the animal responsibly according to your lifestyle ( no over-vaccination )
- Use antibiotics as little as possible because they destroy good and bad bacteria, not to mention the problem of antibiotic resistance which is more and more frequent in animals since they are prescribed far too easily.
- Steroids (like Prednisone for example) are often prescribed for pets with allergies. These drugs work by acting on the immune system to stop the production of the allergic reaction. Although it works to reduce symptoms, this medication comes with significant side effects. Preventing the body’s security system (immune system) from reacting is clearly not a good idea.
- Give your dog baths using a mild shampoo. If the allergen is on his skin or hair, the bath will give him a short respite.
- If you suspect that the allergy comes from outside, clean his paws well after returning from walks. The allergen most likely enters your dog’s body through his paws.
Colostrum: a natural method to reduce environmental allergies
The best product to combat environmental allergies is, in my opinion, bovine colostrum.
Colostrum is what protects babies in breast milk. It helps build the immune system, whether in humans or dogs. What few people know, however, is how much this natural product helps prevent and treat allergies ; especially seasonal but also food. In short, any dog with allergies should try this product BEFORE giving medication . The results are phenomenal!
Colostrum works by protecting the body from bacteria and viruses by improving the immune system. Have you ever heard that children who are breastfed by their mother may develop fewer allergies? The colostrum would be the cause! It contains two agents acting directly on allergies:
- Proline-rich polypeptides (PRP): these are short chains of amino acids whose role is to calm the immune system response that causes allergic reactions by controlling cytokines (inflammatory immune cells). Fortunately, PRPs are not species-specific so dogs can benefit from PRPs from another species, hence the use of bovine colostrum here.
- Antibodies: Colostrum contains large quantities of two antibodies that play a major role in allergies: IgA and IgG. IgG antibodies bind and neutralize allergens in addition to preventing gastrointestinal infections like leaky gut (which I’ll discuss later). The other antibodies contained in the colostrum are the IgAs, which live in the barrier of the intestine (unlike the other antibodies which circulate in the blood). They will therefore prevent the proliferation of bad bacteria and promote the multiplication of good bacteria directly where it counts (intestinal).
A quality colostrum will be:
- From cows raised on pasture
- Without growth hormones
- Without antibiotics
- Analyzed for purity by an external laboratory
- Ethics: the producer must leave the colostrum available only to the calves for the first 12 hours of their life (they need it after all!), after which it can be harvested and shared with the mother who continues to feed her young.
The product I recommend is from Four Leaf Rover. A $20 that is definitely worth investing if your dog suffers from environmental or even food allergies (through its action on digestive health).
Amount to give: 1/8 teaspoon per 25 lbs of body weight, once daily. For a 25 lbs dog, a potty will last you 120 days!
Another excellent natural product to combat environmental and seasonal allergies:
It is a special blend of herbs and vitamins offering excellent help in reducing seasonal allergies:
- Quercetin: Reduces redness, irritation and inflammation by promoting normal histamine levels.
- Bromelain: increases the absorption of quercetin and together promotes a normal inflammatory response by supporting the release of prostaglandins.
- Vitamin C: powerful antioxidant while having a natural antihistamine effect.
- Bee pollen: used in Chinese medicine to desensitize to allergens.
- Plant sterols: Produced by plants, these molecules may support a normal inflammatory response and a balancing effect on immune function.
- Butterbur extract: flower that promotes a normal inflammatory response.
- Stinging Nettle Leaf: Helps maintain normal histamine levels.
- Cat’s Claw: One of the most prescribed herbs in South America to support a normal immune response to allergies.
Unfortunately, this product is no longer available in Canada (Health Canada unfortunately blocks more and more natural products). If you have contacts with an address in the United States, now is the time to ask for their help!
In the meantime, some of these natural ingredients are available (individually) in pharmacies and I will tell you later how to use them and in what dosage.
Local honey to the rescue of your dog
If you suspect your dog has seasonal allergies, giving him some honey could go a long way in fighting his allergies.
Bees carry pollen when they forage on flowers in order to create their honey. A tiny part of this pollen remains in the honey and will desensitize your dog if he eats it in small doses. To do this, the honey must be:
- Produced locally: maximum 80km from your place of residence. Your dog reacts to pollen near your residence. So it makes sense to use honey made from local pollen.
- Natural and unpasteurized (it will be dark in color)
It can be given to dogs 1 year and older and here are the quantities to give:
- 10 lbs and under: 1/4 teaspoon (coffee) per day
- 10-20 lbs: 1/2 teaspoon daily
- 20-50 lbs: 1 teaspoon daily
- 50 lbs and +: up to 2 teaspoon per day
Giving more will not be more effective, in addition to raising blood sugar levels too much. You can give the dose 2-3 times a day and as with any supplement, start gradually.
Start about 4-6 weeks before seasonal allergy season for effective results.
Desensitization at the vet: a good option?
If your dog has an environmental allergy, your vet may have told you about a desensitization immunotherapy treatment that can be done by a veterinary dermatologist. This treatment is also sometimes called “allergy vaccine” although I don’t like that name.
The principle is to gradually introduce a low dose of your dog’s allergens (after having identified them through a skin test as in the photo below) either subcutaneously (injection) or orally (by mouth). ). The dose will increase over time to help the body build tolerance and thus become desensitized to these allergens.
To do this process, you will need to perform the following steps:
- Consultation with a veterinary dermatologist ($230)
- Environmental Allergy Skin Test ($620)
- Treatment (injections or oral) for 9 months (about $500)
- Possibility of needing a 2nd treatment of 9 months if the first does not completely solve the problem (about $500)
Personally, I have absolutely nothing against this process of desensitization except that I find it very expensive. Above all, you should know that it only works for environmental allergies . So make sure you have completely ruled out the possibility of a food allergy or intolerance. This is precisely the subject that we immediately address!
The difference between a food intolerance and a food allergy
Did you know that the majority of cases that we call allergies are actually intolerances? Indeed, only 10% of cases are really real allergies. The rest are either food intolerances or other health conditions that give symptoms that resemble allergies . So let’s start by deciding between allergy and intolerance, a question of knowing what we are talking about in order to possibly apply the right treatment.
Allergy (or allergic reaction) occurs when the dog’s immune system reacts to a specific threat that has entered its body, such as pollen, virus, bacteria, or any other protein-based substance. The immune system (the body’s protective agency) therefore sends a small army to fight the threat and the external symptoms observed are manifestations of the fight going on inside the body. Dogs (and cats) are not born with allergies. They develop over time, usually because the immune system is overwhelmed to the point where it begins to react to things it would normally consider harmless if healthy.
Intolerance (or food sensitivity) occurs when the animal’s digestive system produces a hypersensitivity reaction to an ingredient or food, which increases over time. So it’s something that happens gradually. For example, your dog has been eating this food for years without a problem, but his digestive system suddenly begins to react. Symptoms start out mild then get worse over time to the point of spiraling out of control (which ultimately makes you think of an allergy).
Differentiate between allergy, intolerance and bacterial/fungal infection by symptoms
As you can see, allergy is a reaction of the immune system while intolerance is a reaction of the digestive system , although both can give similar symptoms.
What illnesses lead you to believe your dog has food intolerances when they don’t?
There are a few diseases whose symptoms will make you think they are food intolerances.
One of them occurs when the animal does not produce the enzymes necessary to digest certain foods. This condition is called exocrine pancreatic insufficiency ( EPI ).
The Leaky Gut: The Silent Epidemic
L’autre condition, beaucoup plus courante cette fois-ci mais peu diagnostiquée, survient lorsque l’intestin de votre chien n’est pas en bonne santé et donc ne fait pas bien son travail d’absorption des nutriments provenant de la nourriture qu’il consomme.
Cette maladie s’appelle le syndrome de l’intestin perméable, ou leaky gut syndrome en anglais. J’utiliserai le terme leaky gut pour le reste de cet article.
Cette condition est majeure et beaucoup plus répandue qu’on le pense. Je suis d’avis que la majorité des chiens qu’on croit allergiques/intolérants souffrent en fait de leaky gut et donc ne sont pas traités pour le bon problème de santé. Voilà pourquoi les traitements d’allergies ne fonctionnent possiblement pas sur votre chien: on ne traite pas le bon problème!
In a case of leaky gut , if the food your dog eats causes inflammation in his digestive system, the permeability of his intestine will be affected and it will no longer do its job of absorbing (good) nutrients. in the food and allow them to pass the barrier of the intestine in order to reach the blood to nourish the body. Conversely, the barrier of the intestine must block harmful substances from entering the blood so as not to poison the body, also called autoimmune disease. But when the intestine is inflamed…it no longer does its job well, which causes it to pass the good andbad in the blood. Then follows a reaction that manifests itself externally by symptoms of allergies: scratching, diarrhea, loose stools, etc.
On the left (tight junctions): a healthy gut (not letting intruders through) while on the right (leaky and inflamed) you have a leaky gut where the gut barrier is weakened and lets toxins through for their allow to get into the blood (which we really don’t want).
If you never address the source of the leaky gut problem , your dog will go through a vicious cycle of multiple food changes until he runs out of options. Changing foods will work at first and for a while…and then make you feel like the “allergy” is starting again with that new food.Do you recognize yourself? This is what happens when we don’t give variety in our dog’s food. I can’t repeat it enough: regardless of the mode of animal nutrition (and even especially if you give kibble), you have to offer variety, whether in protein choices (within the same brand) or even a change of kibble brand a few times during its life. This is how you will ward off health issues like leaky gut .
Remember that if your dog’s gut barrier is malfunctioning, external symptoms are only part of the puzzle. In fact, his body does not absorb nutrients well, which in the long term will lead to serious nutritional deficiencies and other health problems.
If you suspect a case of leaky gut in your dog, keep reading because I will present to you later an excellent protocol of products to solve this condition.
Why is the treatment method of veterinarians lacking at the base?
What I deplore most about current veterinary medicine is that it rushes to treat the symptoms but too often without looking for the cause of the problem.
If you have already consulted for an allergy, am I wrong to say that for your problem X, you were quickly prescribed medication Y and recommended to change the dog’s diet to kibble Z? If you prefer: “ An allergy we treat that by prescribing Apoquel and we put the dog on a Royal Canin , Hill’s or Purina hypoallergenic food, depending on your clinic’s allegiance”.
The problem with this mode of operation is that it only camouflages the symptoms. Does your dog scratch at blood? Meet Apoquel, a pill that will stop the scratching (and cause a host of other consequences). So we numb the pain with antibiotics, steroids and antihistamines but without ever trying to fix it at the source…as if finding an allergy was impossible! I’ll give you a scoop: there are reliable allergy tests … and I’ll give you more info a little later.
On the other hand, the same criticism could be made about medicine for humans: they have the easy prescription to relieve symptoms. The difference is that at least my doctor recommends me to eat fresh and unprocessed food, which is the opposite of the veterinarian who recommends the most processed mode of animal nutrition (kibble).
The vet is the only medical professional to say that our patients need to eat MORE processed foods and that fresh, natural foods are dangerous.
Dr. Karen Becker, the most followed veterinarian in the world
Unfortunately, this model does not work. It’s a short-term solution to what can become a permanent health problem. Ah yes the first month, you will be really relieved that your dog is no longer scratching. The medication works! Except that over time, the body gets used to it and the effects will be less and less effective. You will be told to increase the dose…as you would do to a drug addict so the body gets used to its substance.
Personally, I am of the opinion that medication has its place but that it should not be the end of the treatment. Yes, the Apoquel will restore your dog’s quality of life, but that doesn’t mean you have to stop there. The primary goal should always be to fix the problem at the source. It is for this ultimate goal that I will try to guide you on possible solutions.
What are the dangers of the medication used by veterinarians?
Quickly, the veterinary community used different drugs in the treatment of allergies. Unfortunately, by their nature, it often works very well the first year and then less and less in subsequent years. Here is a portrait of the main drugs used in the treatment of allergies in dogs:
Prednisone was the first drug used by veterinarians to control allergies . Like other steroids in its class, Prednisone works by suppressing the immune system response. It’s a bit like closing the door of a messy room: you no longer see the problem but it’s still there. Worse, over time, what lies behind the door will become more and more important!
When Prednisone stopped working, the veterinary community began prescribing Atopica , a drug originally designed for humans receiving transplants to suppress the immune system’s response to prevent rejection of the transplant by the body. The problem with Atopica in dogs is the number of side effects. The FDA has literally 17 pages of listed side effects and just by adding the first 4 positions, we arrive at 6453 reactions! It’s surprising that dogs are still on it these days if you ask me.
Next is Apoquel , which also suppresses the immune system response but in a different way. Apoquel is without a doubt the most prescribed product nowadays by veterinarians to control the symptoms of scratching allergies. It acts by neutralizing the kinases called JAK whose roles are:
- Prevent the formation of tumors in the body (JAK1)
- Control the growth and development of the body
- Form red and white blood cells (JAK2)
- Ensure antibody-producing B cells are functioning well (JAK3)
- Regulate the inflammatory response.
Hmmm…not sure I would like a drug that will interfere with the functioning of all these things that seem very important to me!
But you will tell me: surely there was a study done by the manufacturer before releasing this drug, so we would have seen health problems if the drug affected such important things? If the study had lasted more than 30 days, surely yes! You read that right: the manufacturer’s initial study only lasted 30 days …but now millions of people give Apoquel to their dogs, often 12 months a year for years. Such a short study is therefore an excellent way (for the company) to ensure that this product is “safe”!
In short, Apoquel works and yes this drug has changed the lives of millions of dogs but it would be wrong to think that it comes with no consequences. I am of the opinion that the use of medication should be seen as a temporary solution such as time to receive results of intolerance tests. In sum, medication should be an aid but not the final solution to the dog’s symptoms. To use my house analogy: I want a clean, tidy house…not just close all the doors to messy rooms!
Cytopoint: a new wonder drug?
Cytopoint is a new drug that has recently appeared on the market. It is not an immunosuppressant like Apoquel and you will be told it is safe. Although I agree that it is far less damaging than cortisone or Apoquel, the fact remains that Cytopoint is a synthetic antibody.
The body naturally produces antibodies, whose job is to attach themselves to “enemies” in order to render them inactive. Cytopoint is therefore a synthetic antibody that works by attaching itself to a part of the immune system called Interleukin 31 (IL 31).
IL 31 is a cytokine. A cytokine is a group of proteins whose role is to regulate several physiological functions in the dog’s body according to a very specific sequence, called a cascade. So if Cytopoint (you now understand where it got its name) neutralizes the cytokine IL 31, this will have an impact on all the rest of the cascade that originally followed IL 31. Since the natural role of IL 31 is to trigger a cellular immunity against pathogens , neutralizing it will make the dog more vulnerable to infectious diseases.
In short, neutralizing part of the immune system will always be better than neutralizing it completely (like cortisone or Apoquel) but that does not mean that it is completely without consequence.
Vet’s Hypoallergenic Foods: What They Actually Contain
After the addition of medication, the veterinary method of allergy control is generally to put the dog on a “prescription” diet sold…in his clinic.
The concept behind these hypoallergenic foods is to use a protein source that is so processed (the real term is hydrolyzed protein ) that the dog’s body won’t even recognize it as protein anymore. Then we add waste from the human food industry and finally we include synthetic vitamins that the dog’s body (already suffering) will have great difficulty absorbing.
Let’s analyze some of these diets together and pay attention to the ingredients and the amount of carbohydrates (sugars) contained in these high-priced products:
Royal Canin – Hypoallergenic
INGREDIENTS: Corn starch , hydrolyzed poultry by-product aggregate , coconut oil, vegetable oil, natural flavors, powdered cellulose, dehydrated chicory root, sodium silicoaluminate, potassium chloride, monocalcium phosphate, L-tyrosine, fructooligosaccharides, fish oil, choline chloride, L-lysine, calcium carbonate, vitamins [DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (source vitamin E), L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), niacin supplement, vitamin B12 supplement, calcium D-pantothenate, biotin, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), riboflavin supplement, mononitrate of thiamin (vitamin B1), vitamin A acetate, folic acid, vitamin D3 supplement], DL-methionine, taurine, L-tryptophan, histidine, trace elements [zinc proteinate, zinc oxide, manganese proteinate, ferrous sulfate, oxide manganous, copper sulphate, sodium selenite, copper proteinate], marigold extract (Tagetes erecta L.), rosemary extract, preserved with a mixture of tocopherols and citric acid, magnesium oxide, potassium iodate.
My opinion: This product is so outrageous that I dedicated an entire article to it, titled Royal Canin wants your dog to eat feathers . You read correctly, after corn starch, the 2nd ingredient of this product is chicken feathers. What a great source of protein! The 6th ingredient is also very popular in allergy foods: powdered cellulose. For those who do not yet know what it is, it is sawdust (wood fiber).
Royal Canin – Hydrolyzed Protein
INGREDIENTS: Broken rice , hydrolyzed soy protein, chicken fat, natural flavors, dried ordinary beet pulp, vegetable oil, sodium silicoaluminate, fish oil, calcium sulphate, monocalcium phosphate, potassium chloride, salt, calcium carbonate, fructooligosaccharides, DL-methionine, taurine, vitamins [DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (source of vitamin E), niacin supplement, L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), calcium D-pantothenate, biotin, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6), riboflavin supplement, thiamine mononitrate (vitamin B1), vitamin A acetate, vitamin B12 supplement, folic acid], choline chloride, trace elements [zinc proteinate, zinc oxide, manganese proteinate, manganous oxide, copper sulphate , ferrous sulfate, sodium selenite, copper proteinate, calcium iodate], GLA safflower oil,Indian rose extract (Tagetes erecta L.), magnesium oxide, rosemary extract, preserved with mixed tocopherols and citric acid.
My opinion: broken rice is a by-product of the human rice industry and falls far short of the nutritional benefits of brown rice, for example. Then the soy used in pet food is made from GMOs, full of pesticides and contains endocrine disruptors that can cause thyroid gland problems. Also, be aware that all hydrolyzed proteins contain monosodium glutamate ( MSG ), an ingredient that is toxic to the liver, kidneys and brain.
Finally, I still look for the meat (with the exception of the chicken fat). Read the ingredients again and look for meat…you won’t find any.
Why so many synthetic vitamins? Because the ingredients are not nutritious enough at the base. The company brags about doing a lot of research…I too would need a lot of research to get a dog to eat that!
Purina Pro Plan Vet – HA
INGREDIENTS: Corn Starch , Hydrolyzed Soy Protein Isolate , Partially Hydrogenated Canola Oil Preserved with TBHQ, Coconut Oil, Cellulose Powder, phosphate tricalcique, huile de maïs, phosphate bicalcique, foie de poulet hydrolysé, poulet hydrolysé, chlorure de potassium, gomme de guar, sel, chlorure de choline, oxyde de magnésium, DL-méthionine, taurine, sulfate de zinc, supplément de vitamine E, sulfate ferreux, sulfate de manganèse, niacine (vitamine B3), sulfate de cuivre, supplément de vitamine A, pantothénate de calcium (vitamine B5), mononitrate de thiamine (vitamine B1), supplément de riboflavine (vitamine B2), supplément de vitamine B12, sulfure d’allyle, chlorhydrate de pyridoxine (vitamine B6), acide folique (vitamine B9), supplément de vitamine D3, iodate de calcium, biotine (vitamine B7), complexe de bisulfite de sodium et de ménadione (vitamine K), sélénite de sodium. B-262
Mon opinion: Où est la viande? Ah oui…le 10e ingrédient, APRÈS le bran de scie. Donc amidon de maïs, soja, huile de canola, huile de copra et bran de scie comme principaux ingrédients. Vous voulez vraiment offrir ceci à votre chien? C’est presque de l’abus nutritionnel!
Et le dernier ingrédient en rouge (complexe de bisulfite de sodium et de ménadione), c’est littéralement toxique pour les reins, le foie et les membranes muqueuses (comme la paroi de l’intestin) en plus d’être cancérigène et mutagène (qui change l’ADN). C’est un des pires ingrédients qu’on puisse retrouver dans une nourriture.
53.5% de glucides
Hill’s Prescription Diet – Z/D
INGREDIENTS: Corn starch , hydrolyzed chicken liver , powdered cellulose , soybean oil, calcium carbonate, dicalcium phosphate, lactic acid, potassium chloride, glyceryl monostearate, choline chloride, iodized salt, vitamins (vitamin E supplement, L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (source of vitamin C), niacin supplement, thiamine mononitrate, vitamin A supplement, calcium pantothenate, biotin, vitamin B12 supplement, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin supplement, folic acid, supplement vitamin D3), DL-methionine, minerals (iron sulfate, zinc oxide, copper sulfate, manganous oxide, calcium iodate, sodium selenite), taurine, mixed tocopherols for freshness, natural flavors, beta-carotene.
My opinion: it really looks like sawdust (powdered cellulose) is a key ingredient in the treatment of allergies! All foods contain it.
Other kibble options
With the exception of hydrolyzed protein made by Royal Canin, Hill’s and Purina, there are also limited ingredient kibbles. These will be sold in specialized shops and not at the veterinarian.
The concept behind these kibbles is to have the shortest list of ingredients possible. That said, the ingredient lists are still often too long for my taste.. but at least we generally end up with a single meat protein which can help when we suspect that this would be the source of the dog’s discomfort. .
Here are some good brands that offer good limited ingredient products:
I am in no way against the use of these products, but it would be wrong to see these kibbles as THE solution that will solve all your dog’s problems. The natural methods that I will tell you about a little below will, in my opinion, have much more impact in improving the condition of dogs suffering from food intolerances.
A new kibble now on the market?
In 2019, the Quebec company Oven-Baked Tradition approached me to consult me in order to create the best croquette possible, without worrying about the price! I admit that it piqued my curiosity and it was with pleasure that I went to meet the team in charge of designing the recipes (in addition to visiting the factory!). They humbly agreed to listen to my vision of the ingredients I would like to see in the ideal kibble and took lots of notes.
After my visit, they worked for months not only to include these ingredients but above all, to create a kibble that would not need any added vitamins (synthetics), ie where the balance of vitamins and acids amino would only come from the ingredients. This point is really important and practically no company on the market has succeeded in this feat. To be 100% transparent, there is only ONE supplement in the entire recipe: Vitamin E. All other vitamins and minerals come from the ingredients!
Recently, the company informed me that the recipe was ready and that, in addition, it was a kibble made mainly of goat, a protein that you hardly ever see in a kibble for dogs and which is nevertheless the most consumed meat in the world (more than chicken!). Note, however, that there is also pork, lamb, turkey and duck as other proteins in the recipe. In short, what started out as a hypo-allergenic kibble is clearly no longer one , although it remains an interesting product for the concept that all the vitamins come from the ingredients.
Bonus: ils ont réussis à inclure tous les ingrédients fonctionnels que je recommandais, comme entre autres la moule verte, graines de chanvre, graines de citrouilles, épinards, curcuma, canneberges, etc… Je suis fier d’avoir participé au brainstorming de début de projet. Je remercie la compagnie de leur ouverture à vouloir créer le meilleur produit possible, sans additif synthétique et avec une balance issue complètement des ingrédients!
Mise à jour: la croquette est maintenant disponible en boutique depuis juin 2022. Il existe deux versions: petite race et régulier. Dans les deux cas, il s’agit de la même recette c’est seulement la taille des croquettes qui varie. De plus, il est important à noter qu’il s’agit (dans les deux cas) d’une croquette pour chien ADULTE. Dernier détail, je trouve le visuel vraiment magnifique!
The first changes to make in your dog’s diet to combat allergies/intolerances
1. Remove all grains from their diet:
Although the majority of people are quick to blame meat (ex: chicken) when talking about intolerances, I consider that there are many more dogs who have difficulty with grains than with meat. general. The first step to try in controlling intolerances would therefore be to remove all grains from your diet. If after several weeks without grains in kibble or treats you don’t see any improvement, go to step 2.
If you are still among those who believe that grains help prevent heart diseases like dilated cardiomyopathy, I invite you to read my article on the subject.
2. Remove All Allergy Triggers:
- Chemical preservatives
- Brewer’s yeast (often in the ingredient list)
- Meat by-products
- Bad sources of fat (ex: “animal fat” is bad because it comes from rendering and can contain fat from any animal)
- Synthetic vitamins
Obviously, nothing prevents you from combining the two steps and doing it all at the same time. The only drawback is that you will not have the information to know if the problem came from the grains or from an element in point #2.
The elimination diet: a good idea?
Often, your veterinarian will recommend an elimination diet (or elimination diet) in an effort to find the source of the food intolerance.
The idea behind this method is to put the dog on a new diet made of a new protein (meat) that he has never eaten and a new starch (carbohydrate) ideally low in sugar and high in fiber for 8 to 12 weeks. Let’s take a lamb and pumpkin diet for this example.
By giving him something he has never eaten, we will therefore:
- Calm the many reactions of his system and allow him a detoxification by stopping the accumulation of toxins produced by the allergic reaction.
- Support the liver and kidneys in the elimination of these toxins.
- Start looking for the trigger of the allergic reaction.
Before starting the new diet, be sure to transition between his old and new food, as you would any change in kibble. The 8 to 12 week counter begins only when the dog is 100% on its new kibble. The addition of milk thistle, quercetin and bromelain could also greatly help the detoxification process.
For a kibble elimination diet, I recommend Farmina’s N&D series, mainly because it’s made with pumpkin which is a great starch but hardly ever used by other companies. You will therefore have a good chance that your dog has never eaten it. This series is made for all sizes of dog in three proteins: chicken, lamb and wild boar. Since the majority of dogs eat a chicken product, I would recommend lamb if your dog has never eaten it, otherwise I would go with boar.
The dog will therefore eat this diet for 8 to 12 weeks. After this period, if all is well on lamb and pumpkin, you can add a new protein (say beef) and if all is well again, another new protein say 2 weeks later.
The problem with this method is that the signs of an intolerance can take 5 weeks to appear. In the previous example, if at week 16 your dog starts scratching again, will it be because of the 2nd or 3rd protein you added…or even lamb or pumpkin which would have taken more? longer than usual to trigger a reaction? Hard to say…not to mention how long it takes!
Personally, I consider that this method generates very few precise results for all the time it takes …and even more so when you know that a simple and effective food intolerance test exists!
Natural methods to treat food intolerances
Now that you understand that the majority of intolerance symptoms are the result of a failing digestive system, it’s time to talk about how to get it back in shape. By using the right methods, you can greatly improve your dog’s gut health with the goal of reducing or completely eliminating the symptoms (and the source of the intolerance).
Also, if your dog suffers from chronic infections (ex: recurrent ear infections) due to bacterial or fungal infections, know that the same method applies and will help him greatly.
Here are the products I recommend adding and in what order to do so:
- Bone broth: feed a good quality bone broth to your dog in order to heal and repair his intestinal lining thanks to the collagen it contains. Here are four products that I really like, my favorite being that of Vita Nutrition, a broth made in Quebec in a natural way:
2. Probiotics : give a good quality of natural prebiotics+probiotics or supplements to add good bacteria to his digestive system.
My favorite probiotic supplements come from the Canadian company Adored Beast. They have been recognized for years for the Love Bugs product which contains 30 billion CFU per gram. Recently, they developed the first probiotic (and the ONLY one on the market) made with strains of bacteria derived specifically from dogs. This product is Fido’s Flora. It is currently the best probiotic for dogs on the market, with Love Bugs in 2nd place.
Important: The popular FortiFlora probiotics from the Purina company and sold by veterinary clinics are not what I call a quality product. This product contains many questionable ingredients (animal digest from rendering and synthetic vitamins ) and is very ineffective (only 1 million CFU per gram ) compared to a quality product (30 billion CFU per gram). When you consider that a dog’s stomach is a very acidic environment, giving him a product with only 1 million CFU per gram is almost like giving a placebo! Below 10 billion, don’t waste your money!
3. Feed fresh or minimally processed food: Raw food would be ideal as it is easier to digest and adds less stress to the digestive system. A study in 2009 showed that the body produced fewer antibodies (signs of food intolerance) in raw food than cooked.
If raw is not possible, opt for a homemade or commercial cooked fresh diet; there are more and more available on the market: Tom&Sawyer, Marie’s Kitchen from Stella & Chewy’s, Chubco and Gently Cook from Open Farm are four that I have tried and recommend. These cooked foods are also an excellent alternative for those who have concerns about raw food.
If this is still not possible, a 3rd alternative would be to give a grain-free canned food based on a protein (meat) that the animal has never eaten: rabbit, venison, kangaroo, etc…
Above all: try to avoid kibbles because they are processed, contain many ingredients and are high in carbohydrates which the dog’s body converts into sugars. The sugars in the kibble feed the bad bacteria in addition to making the pH of the stomach more basic (less acidic), which also creates an environment conducive to the multiplication of the bad bacteria.
4. Add a good source of fiber or prebiotics : green tripe, green leafy vegetables, ground flax seeds, fermented foods (goat’s milk, fermented vegetables, kefir and apple cider vinegar) or a good prebiotic supplement. Prebiotics are essential if you are giving probiotics.
5. Add extra digestive enzymes or green tripe to help digest food until the digestive system recovers. Natural enzymes are only present in fresh food. Any dog eating a commercial diet (kibbles) will give full responsibility for the production of enzymes to his pancreas, which is often too much for him.
If you’re looking for a good supplement that contains both prebiotics, probiotics, and digestive enzymes , my favorite is Healthy Gut from Adored Beast. They also have separate products if you only want to have probiotics but the 3 in 1 (Healthy Gut) really makes this a great value. You just have to mix the product (powder) in the bone broth and it will be super easy to give!
If you understand English, I invite you to listen to this short video by Julie Anne Lee, naturopath and founder of Adored Beast who explains why all dogs and especially those who eat kibble would benefit from Healthy Gut:
6. Add coconut oil directly to a dog’s scratching wounds. It contains many beneficial properties and is also antifungal, therefore excellent for recurrent ear infection problems.
7. Add good fish oil to increase its supply of omega 3s, which reduce inflammation in the dog’s body. My favorite product is Bonnie & Clyde oil, a high quality Quebec product.
8.. Add quercetin . Also called natural Benadryl, this natural product found in pharmacies inhibits the release of histamine in addition to helping to seal the intestinal barrier. The one found in pharmacies often contains bromelain, an enzyme that makes it more effective.
Dosage: 8 mg per pound of weight per day, if possible divided into two doses. Apples, bananas and broccoli also naturally contain it. Note: do not give to a dog with kidney problems and as with most supplements, it is not given every day until the end of time. You give it a few weeks and then stop.
9. Give bovine colostrum. This natural product (discussed earlier) will help with both environmental allergies and food intolerances. It’s one of the first products you should try because it’s very effective and inexpensive!
10. If you suspect a food intolerance: TAKE A TEST!
For serious cases of leaky gut syndrome
In addition to severe allergy symptoms, dogs with leaky gut will develop a host of health issues related to chronic inflammation:
- Behavioral issues (gut and brain are linked by endocrine and hormonal system)
- Collapse of the trachea
- Liver, gall bladder and pancreas disorders
- Nervous system and eye disorders
- Inflammatory bowel disease
- Articular pain
- Thyroid gland disorders
- heart disease
As you can see, an untreated leaky gut disorder can have disastrous consequences.
If you suspect your dog has a serious case of leaky gut syndrome , I recommend first trying the bovine colostrum I mentioned above. It is a low cost ($20) natural product that offers huge benefits.
I prefer the Four Leaf Rover but Big Country Raw’s Thrive isn’t bad either. Both are free of antibiotics and growth hormones but only the Four Leaf Rover comes from grass fed cows.
If you see results but the problem persists, then I recommend the Leaky Gut Protocol again from Adored Beast.
It is a series of 5 products to give (not all at the same time) according to a well-established order. I’ve seen real miracles in dogs that had the worst allergy symptoms: biting and scratching with blood, “hot spots”, poor digestion, etc…It’s not cheap ($179.99) but think how much you currently costs your Apoquel prescriptions and soy or feather veterinarian food! These natural products can only help your dog’s situation and the success that I have observed on several occasions means that I would be remiss if I did not tell you about this product protocol.
Honestly, there’s no product that comes close to what Adored Beast does for digestive health. As long as you give something, might as well give the best and as usual, what I would give my dog is what I recommend.
Allergy/intolerance tests: why are they so little known?
If you suspect the allergy or intolerance is food related, get tested!
What? You didn’t know it existed? You should spend a little less time at the vet and a little more researching!
Joking aside, yes there are allergy or intolerance tests for dogs. The best known is Glacier Peak Holistics ($125) but I don’t recommend it . For having tried it, it gives several false positive results and above all it is very imprecise, offering only as a result whether or not the dog is intolerant. However, this is not how intolerances work. There are many degrees of intensity for each allergen, from very low to highly allergenic. The Glacier Peak test by giving only intolerant or not sounds the alarm for a multitude of ingredients and in the end will not advance you any further, giving you the impression that you will never find a food containing none of the allergens detected by the test. In short, not precise enough for me…so I do not recommend it! However, it is the only test that some veterinarians know about and recommend…to believe that they want to keep you as a client!
The real food intolerance test you should consider is the Nutriscan . It will be the best $380 ($298 US) investment of your life if you have a dog that shows signs of intolerance. Expensive, yes…but once again think about the cost of the medication you are currently giving and your kibble made from feathers…all that without ever solving the problem! In the end, $380 to KNOW what intolerance is and thus be able to avoid it, is perfectly reasonable in my opinion.
How does the Nutriscan test work and who is behind it?
The Nutriscan test was designed and developed by veterinarian Jean Dodds, a true authority in her field. She is the world’s foremost expert on diseases related to the thyroid gland and is the author of The Canine Thyroid Epidemic . His laboratory (Hemopet) is responsible for performing the most advanced diagnostic tests for thyroid disease in addition to doing vaccine titrations. She is also the author of the Minimum (but Responsible) Vaccination Protocol used by many veterinarians concerned about not over-vaccinating. His 2nd book, Canine Nutrigenomics, explains and analyzes the impact of food on the dog’s DNA. Finally, his expertise and his research work are quoted in many books around the world.
The Nutriscan works by measuring the number of IgA and IgM antibodies present in the dog’s saliva; a high level of antibodies indicates that the dog is intolerant to the ingredient being tested. These two antibodies (IgA and IgM) are produced by the body to fight food intolerances. They therefore offer the perfect measure of the reaction going on in your dog’s body.
IgA antibodies measure the immune response to foods in saliva that have occurred within the past two years . IgM antibodies, on the other hand, measure the immune response that has taken place following exposure to a food in the last 6 months . By combining these two values, it is therefore possible to see the movements in each intolerance (is the intolerance decreasing or increasing over time).
In fact, it has even been proven that a food intolerance will cause one of these antibodies to be present in the dog’s saliva up to 5 months BEFORE the dog shows symptoms . The Nutriscan test will therefore not only allow you to intervene on the intolerances currently occurring in your dog’s body, but also to prevent those which have not yet begun to cause discomfort to the dog. When we talk about dealing with the problem at the source, we can’t get better!
Nutriscan tests the 24 ingredients most likely to cause food intolerances:
|Beef (and bison)||Venison (venison)||Chicken eggs|
|White fish||Cow milk||Quinoa|
|Pig||Lentils and peas||Riz|
The test is non-invasive and really easy to perform. You order the test kit directly from Dr. Dodds’ lab, on Amazon or buy it in store so you can get it faster (my friends at Woouf have some in stock). The kit includes a return envelope, a piece of sterile cotton cord and a plastic tube. You only have to put the end of the rope in your dog’s mouth for a few seconds so that he becomes moistened with saliva. You then put the sample in the plastic tube and everything in the return envelope (with the international instruction sheet), which will go by courier to Dr. Dodds’ laboratory in California. They will take care of the analysis and you will receive the report by email approximately 14 days after receipt from them.
That’s it: no blood test, no elimination diet, no medication… just a little saliva from your dog given to Dr. Dodds’ laboratory will give you a precise list of your dog’s intolerances. They have tested over 17,000 dogs since the test was created! It is therefore nothing new although the test is too little known here.
Important: If your dog is on medication to reduce his symptoms (ex: Apoquel), the medication should be stopped for a period of time before performing the test. I therefore recommend that you confirm with Dr. Dodds’ team ( [email protected] ) according to the medication your dog is taking in order not to falsify the results.
Here is an example of a result report obtained by the Nutriscan test:
There you will see the results of the two antibodies (IgA and IgM) for the 24 ingredients. Above all, you will see the LEVEL of intolerance for each, classified according to 6 levels:
- Negative (no reaction) or less than 10 U/ml
- Weak reaction ( weak reaction ) i.e. from 10 to 11.4 U/ml
- Borderline reaction , i.e. from 11.5 to 11.9 U/ml
- Intermediate reaction ( intermediate reaction ) i.e. from 12 to 12.9 U/ml
- Medium reaction ( medium reaction ) i.e. from 13 to 14.9 U/ml
- Strong reaction ( strong reaction ) i.e. more than 15 U/ml
As you can see in the example report, the tested dog (Bruno) is intolerant to turkey , white fish and potatoes (borderline reaction), in addition to venison (intermediate reaction). This is a degree of accuracy that no other test on the market can offer.
For the same dog, the Glacier Peak test had given results of intolerances to almost everything…except these 4 allergens. Glacier Peak said Bruno was allergic to: chicken, eggs, lentils, salmon, sweet potatoes, milk and ALL grains: barley, corn, millet, oats, quinoa, rice and wheat. When I told you that the test is imprecise and gave several false positives…
Thank you to my client Josée for allowing her Bruno’s results to be used to show you the difference between the two tests on the same dog. Here’s the full Glacier Peak report if you want to compare the results of the two tests:
As you can see, there are many solutions to resolve not only the symptoms but also the source of the allergies or intolerances.
It all starts with being healthy and eating well. When the digestive system is healthy and well-balanced, the body generally does not cause an overreaction to food. All the recommendations I give can only help your dog’s situation and health in general. You have nothing to lose and everything to gain!
Unfortunately, we too often focus on the problem we see (ex: my dog is scratching) while the solution is far more often found where we are not looking (the intestine).
It’s time for the veterinary community to stop treating symptoms with medication and feather food and start addressing the sources of the symptoms. Bovine colostrum and a good quality pre/probiotic and digestive enzyme (like Healthy Gut) should always be tried BEFORE medication.
Also, I hope clinics will start stocking the Nutriscan as it is an amazing tool to really improve animal welfare. Veterinarians sincerely want to help your dog, but the actual method used is what their environment teaches them. Do not hesitate to tell them about the recommendations contained in this article and together, you will succeed in relieving your dog and offering him a better quality of life.
I hope this article has given you solutions to try with the ultimate goal of providing relief to your dog. On his behalf, thank you for getting involved in improving his health!
Top 10 reasons to consult a vet in 2019 – Healthy Paws Pet Insurance
Aflatoxins in Pet Foods: A Risk to Special Consumers – Simone Aquino et Benedito Corrêa
Comparison of mycotoxin concentrations in grain versus grain-free dry and wet commercial dog foods – John H. Tegzes
Differences in the gut microbiota of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) fed a natural diet or a commercial feed – Junhyung Kim et al.
Identification of modifiable pre- and postnatal dietary and environmental exposures associated with owner-reported canine atopic dermatitis – Dre. Anna Hielm-Björkman et al.
Colostrum For Dog Allergies – Dogs Naturally Magazine
Dr. Becker Discusses Seasonal Support For Pets – Dre Karen Becker, DMV
Honey Good for Dogs, Cats – Honey is a Natural, Healthful, Healing Food – Karen Rosenfeld
It’s NOT JUST Allergies! Food Allergies: Over-diagnosed and Less Common Than We Think – RDBK Blog
Food Allergies in Dog, Cats – Causes, Symptoms, Natural Treatments – Karen Rosenfeld
Prebiotics: How to nourish your pet’s gut bacteria – RDBK Blog
Help your dog overcome these 3 common allergies – Dre Karen Becker, DMV
Corticosteroids, Prednisone for Dogs, Cats – Uses, Side Effects, Dangers – Karen Rosenfeld
Is Atopica safe for dogs? – Dre Deva Khalsa, DMV
Short term steroid use can have troubling side effects – Zoetis
Apoquel: vet says beware the side effects – Dre Deva Khalsa, DMV
Cytopoint for dogs: why it’s not safe – Dr Edward Bassingthwaighte, DMV
MSG In Dog Food Can Cause Brain Damage – Dogs Naturally Magazine
Feeding the food allergic dog naturally? – Dre Laurie Coger, DMV
Food allergy: Fact vs fiction – Dre Alice Jeromin, DMV
Why you shouldn’t give your dog FortiFlora – Dogs Naturally Magazine
Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens – Aristo Vojdani
Dog Skin Allergies and Conditions – Dre Judy Morgan, DMV
Food Allergies in Dogs, Cats – Remedies, Elimination, Diet, Recipe – Karen Rosenfeld
Nature’s Benadryl: Quercetin – Rodney Habib
Nutriscan – Dre Jean Dodds, DMV
Diagnosis of Canine Food Sensitivity and Intolerance Using Saliva: Report of Outcomes – Dre Jean Dodds, DMV
Food Sensitivity and Intolerances Associated with Diet Type in Golden Retrievers: A Retrospective Study – Dre Jean Dodds, DMV
Diagnosis of Canine Food Sensitivity and Intolerance Using Saliva: Report of Outcomes – Dre Jean Dodds, DMV